They estimated that the percentage of all financial injury verdicts in which punitive damages were awarded in Alabama was between 17 and 32 percent during that period. Shearer P. Punitive Damages Awards, Caps, and Standards. If you incurred medical expenses, you should be paid for them. The legal forms on this website are secure and protect the privacy of your information. If punitive damages had been capped at the amount of compensatory damages in each case, 60 percent of all punitive awards would have been affected, and the total amount of punitive damages awarded in these cases would have been reduced by roughly 65 percent. In a highly publicized lawsuit over Monsanto's globally used Roundup weedkiller, a jury initially awarded Dewayne Johnson $39.25 million in compensatory damages and $289 million in punitive damages. 13% of cases with punitive awards had damages of $1 million or more. Accessed February 6, 2019. US Legal, Inc. Damages, in many cases, come in two major categories: punitive and compensatory damages. What If a Hurricane Happens During a Pandemic? Accessed February 6, 2019.  The mean punitive damage award was between $540,000 and $945,000; the 90th percentile award was between $947,000 and $1.9 million. Menu Location (405) 607-1400 Contact . However, the trial judge vacated the award after determining that William hadn’t met the burden of showing “clear and convincing evidence” that the arresting officers acted intentionally or recklessly. If you were seriously injured in a car accident that someone else caused, you may be entitled to compensatory damages such as medical bills, lost wages, and pain and suffering. When it comes to personal injury law, there are two types of damages: compensatory damages and punitive damages (sometimes called “exemplary damages”). Punitive damages were awarded most often in Alabama, California, and Harris County; average awards were considerably higher in California, Cook County, and Harris County. Wex Legal Dictionary. In some personal injury lawsuits, the plaintiff will only demand compensatory damages. They are meant to punish the defendant for … The average (mean) award ranged from $2.1 million in real property cases to $7.9 million in insurance cases. Co. v. Campbell, 538 U.S. 408 (2003). Co. v. Campbell, 538 U.S. 408, The egregiousness of the defendant's conduct, The difference between the actual or potential harm suffered by the plaintiff and the punitive damages award, The difference between the punitive damages and applicable civil penalties applied in similar cases. The mean punitive damage award was considerably higher in California ($5.8 million), Cook County ($3.2 million), and Harris County ($6.7 million) than in New York ($570,000) or the St. Louis metropolitan area ($360,000). The punitive damages must be at an acceptable ratio relative to the compensatory damages. Dernago (2d Dept. In some cases, it is also possible to collect punitive damages. Late last month, a jury held Johnson & Johnson liable for $70 million in compensatory damages and $347 million in punitive damages in a case brought by an individual plaintiff who alleges that her terminal ovarian cancer was caused by using J&J’s talcum powder. Income Distribution in the United States: How It’s Changed Since the 1970s. The amount of punitive damages awarded in a case divided by the amount of compensatory damages awarded in that case indicates how the punitive award compares to the harm suffered by the plaintiff, as measured by the amount required to compensate the plaintiff for his or her financial injury. … If you were seriously hurt through no fault of your own, you may be entitled to compensatory damages. Tort is French for “wrong” and is a wrongful act, intentional or accidental, that causes injury to another. The courts will similarly consider the awarded amount of compensatory damages set in the case. Moore v RJ Reynolds. The highest median ratio was in insurance verdicts, in which punitive awards were typically almost four times higher than compensatory awards. What Does South Korea Herald for the Biden Administration? Punitive Damages – Punitive or exemplary damages are meant to punish the defendant (and to deter others from engaging in similar conduct), distinguishing them from compensatory damages. Gross negligence refers to … All forms of damages exist as part of tort law and are designed to financially compensate a victim for losses they sustain due to another person's bad behavior. While punitive damages are well-established in terms … Punitive damages are awarded only in exceptional cases where conduct giving rise to damage is such that it offends the court’s sense of decency. These are typically awarded in cases where the defendant was found to have been particularly negligent in the incident. Punitive damages were awarded in only 6 percent of the cases in which plaintiffs prevailed, and only half of these awards exceeded $50,000. In addition, punitive damages represented a larger portion of all damages awarded, rising from about 44 percent of all damages awarded in the 1985–1989 period to slightly less than 60 percent in the later period. 14. In 2017, a jury agreed with Ms. Giannechini, awarding her $2.5 million in compensatory damages and a whopping $67.5 million in punitive damages. Punitive Damage Awards in Financial Injury Jury Verdicts. Id. The fraction of cases in which punitive damages are awarded indicates the probability that punitive damages will be awarded in a case. State Farm Mut. Compensatory damages and punitive damages are the two types of personal injury damages that a plaintiff will demand in civil litigation. The Court reduced the punitive damage award from $2.5 billion to $507.5 million (the same amount the plaintiffs were awarded in compensatory damages) because a "one-to-one ratio to compensatory damages is a fair upper limit of punitive damage awards for such maritime cases". As Figure 1 shows, punitive damages represented more than half of all the damages awarded overall, including those cases in which there was no punitive award, and more than 60 percent in insurance and securities cases. The median ratio of punitive damages to compensatory damages in Alabama was somewhat over 5; this compares with 0.5–2.5 in the other jurisdictions studied. Some state laws do limit the total damages award (special and general) in medical malpractice suits. Punitive Damages And Wrongful Dismissal. had published a pamphlet that allegedly libeled the King. If caps had been imposed at higher levels, fewer awards and a smaller percentage of the damages awarded would have been affected. Other Examples of Punitive Damages. Any discussion of the modern principles relating to punitive damages starts with Rookes v Barnard UKHL. Punitive damages are not awarded in every serious personal injury case or in every wrongful death case. Is the behavior part of a pattern or just an isolated incident? The authors analyzed the entire population of financial injury verdicts in the database for the 5-year periods 1985–1989 and 1990–1994. In In Alabama, punitive damages were awarded in 17 to 32 percent of financial injury verdicts, with an average award of $540,000 to $945,000. Published July 23, 2017. Three separate surgeries failed to retrieve all of the pieces of the mesh, leaving Engelman with chronic pelvic pain, urinary dysfunction and scarring. Punitive damages are awarded only in cases where the defendant’s conduct is exceptionally malicious or outrageous. Plaintiffs received punitive damages in 30% of the 1,761 civil trials in which these damages were requested and the plaintiff prevailed. Equal Opportunity Employment Commission. Koutouzos GD. Published June 26, 2017. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. 6 In 1877, the criminal chamber of the Cour de Cassation awarded compensation for ‘le dommage moral’ arising from wrongful death. However, the mean award amount increased from $3.4 million to $7.6 million between these two periods. In Alabama, punitive damages represented between 80 and 86 percent of all damages awarded in all financial injury verdicts. Deborah Giannechini was diagnosed with ovarian cancer after 40 years of daily exposure to Johnson & Johnson's Shower-to-Shower Body Powder, which likely contained asbestos. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. Plaintiff Law and Legal Definition. He pled guilty a month … What kinds of costs can be compensatory damages? Some state laws do limit the total damages award (special and general) in medical malpractice suits. Torts include negligence cases and personal injury. Accessed February 6, 2019. Overall, 39 states plus the District of Columbia have no caps on general damages for personal injury or product liability cases. estimates of the effects of capping punitive damage awards at some multiple of compensatory damages. The ratio of punitive award to compensatory award also varied across jurisdictions. Bollea v. Gawker The site is sponsored by law firms. 2015), a woman in a rear-end car crash case was awarded pain and suffering damages in the sum of $160,000 for her neck injury (previously discussed by us here) plus punitive damages in the sum of $70,000. Defendant Law and Legal Definition. She endured invasive, dangerous surgeries as a result and was left with a portion of the device still lodged in her inferior vena cava. The median punitive damage award was $64,000, and 13% of cases with punitive awards had damages of $1 million or more. 205, 95 Eng. Johnson's case serves as an example of what can happen when punitive awards exceed the limitations described by the U.S. Supreme Court. However, this is false. RAND is nonprofit, nonpartisan, and committed to the public interest. What Is The Difference Between Compensatory Damages And Punitive Damages? In Alabama, punitive damages represented between 80 and 86 percent of all damages … On appeal both damages awards were affirmed. Punitive damages are only to be awarded where normal compensatory damages are insufficient to accomplish the objective of retribution, deterrence and denunciation. Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center. Courts assess punitive damages awards only when they feel the defendant should be punished and discouraged from engaging in similar conduct in the future, making them a bit subjective. Lastly, we’ll look at an example of a recent Arizona case where punitive damages were awarded. Were you diagnosed with ovarian cancer after years of using Johnson & Johnson's talcum powder? Boarding & Prep School Sexual Abuse Lawsuit, EEOC Wins $8 Million Jury Verdict For Blind Worker in Disability Bias Case Against Echostar, Johnson & Johnson hit with $20M pelvic mesh verdict, No new trial for Bard in $4m vena cava filter loss. Menu Location (405) 607-1400 Contact . In some cases, it is also possible to collect punitive damages. Personal injury disputes—for example, those concerning asbestos or medical devices—have dominated the long-running debate over tort reform and punitive damages. In an October 2018 appeals court decision, a judge decreased the punitive damages award to $39.25 million, citing due process. And in the former three jurisdictions, punitive damages represented more than half of total damages awarded. If you have been injured in an accident that was caused by the negligence of someone else, you may be entitled to compensation for your injuries. Click for Profile. Compensatory damages are awarded in civil court cases where loss has occurred as a result of the negligence or unlawful conduct of another party. A cap at five times compensatory damages would have affected half of the punitive damage awards in financial injury cases in the state and reduced the total amount of punitive damages awarded in these cases by 77 percent. Focus on Civic Education. Section 1981 cases are particularly useful because Congress treated the § 1981A damage provisions as an amendment to § 1981. Keep in mind that compensation isn’t automatic simply because you have filed a claim. Punitive damages were awarded in 700 (5%) of the 14,359 trials where plaintiffs prevailed. As with many things, each state addresses punitive damages in their own way. To help clear that up, we've pulled a few examples from the lawsuits we cover. Bishop was a case involving an award of punitive damages where no compensatory damages were awarded on the underlying cause of action. Many people think that all terminations can attract punitive damages. The 90th percentile award captures the worst-case scenario—only 10 percent of awards are larger. The jury agreed, leading to their 7 to 1 assessment of punitive to compensatory damages. They are a legal tool for punishment and deterrent in cases where the actions at hand were egregious enough to warrant justice above and beyond simple repayment to the wronged party. Attorney Advertising. In one, punitive damages were awarded and compensatory damages were not. If you were injured and lost time from work, your wages should be reimbursed. 12.11 There are four types of damages that may be awarded in a tort action: nominal damages, compensatory damages, aggravated damages and exemplary or punitive damages. In a New Jersey case against Johnson & Johnson, Talcum Baby Powder users were awarded $37.2 million in compensatory damages for cancer-related issues due to asbestos exposure. They estimated that a cap at the level of compensatory damages would have affected approximately 80 percent of the punitive awards in financial injury cases in Alabama and would have reduced the total amount of punitive damages awarded in these cases by about 90 percent. Despite this upper limit 4:1 ratio guidance, there are nonetheless examples of state Supreme Courts affirming punitive awards far in excess of a 4:1 ratio. Overall, the median ratio of punitive damages to compensatory damages was 1.4; that is, punitive awards were typically about 40 percent larger than the compensatory award (Figure 2). 1763). Punitive damages. The Court reduced the punitive damage award from $2.5 billion to $507.5 million (the same amount the plaintiffs were awarded in compensatory damages) because a "one-to-one ratio to compensatory damages is a fair upper limit of punitive damage awards for such maritime cases". In the final, only compensatory damages were necessary to be paid to the plaintiff. Her talcum powder lawsuit alleged J&J deliberately chose to market a product they knew was dangerous, eventually causing her to develop a terminal illness. Punitive damages were awarded in about 16 percent of all financial injury verdicts in the 1985–1989 period and in about 13 percent of all financial injury verdicts in the 1990–1994 period. The overall 90th percentile award was $6.2 million. Intentional misconduct is exhibited when a person knows that their behavior exposes other people to a higher risk of injury or death but overlooks the dangers and acts anyway. Punitive damages are meant to discourage the defendant – as well as others in the community who may get the idea to behave similarly – from acting in the same negligent or reckless manner that caused the accident. They don’t call the California Superior Court in Los Angeles “The Bank” for nothing. at 28, 20 OBR at 214, 485 N.E.2d at 705. MassDevice, Punitive Damages Awards, Caps, and Standards, State Farm Mut. After you submit the form, a paralegal will call the phone number you provide and will evaluate the merits of your (or your loved one’s) case. These are all known as compensatory damages. Instead, the Wisconsin Supreme Court has reserved these damages only for those cases in which the victim and his or her attorney can show that the defendant intended to cause harm or acted in a way that he or she knew would reasonably cause injury. In many states, an award of punitive damages requires a showing of intentional misconduct. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. The jury decided to deny compensatory damages for a woman who smoked for forty years and lost her larynx to throat cancer as a result. Accessed February 6, 2019. Punitive damages, or exemplary damages, are damages assessed in order to punish the defendant for outrageous conduct and/or to reform or deter the defendant and others from engaging in conduct similar to that which formed the basis of the lawsuit. If the harm inflicted by the defendant is difficult to estimate financially, or the defendant's actions were particularly reckless, the court can also award punitive damages as a way to punish the defendant and discourage similar behavior. They are most commonly awarded in cases in which the compensatory damages seem to be an inadequate remedy, and because of the defendant’s egregious conduct. In State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Campbell (2003) 538 U.S. 408, 425 (State Farm), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that disproportionately large punitive damage awards violate the due process clause of the United States Constitution. The law also allows an award for pain and suffering you may have sustained. If your case is considered viable, the law firm will provide information about moving forward with your case. What are punitive damages? Damages in Personal Injury Cases: What Clients Should Know By dtaw on January 13, 2016. They were awarded an additional £100,000 in punitive damages. To provide an empirical basis for the ongoing debate about punitive damages, Erik Moller, Nicholas Pace, and Stephen Carroll drew on the ICJ's jury verdict database to conduct the first close analysis of trends and patterns in punitive awards for financial injuries. The information on ConsumerSafety.org is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to provide specific legal advice. If the defendant acted with particularly egregious behavior, it might also be possible to obtain a punitive award. These include the economic and non-economic damages arising from the tort such as medical bills, lost income, property repairs, and pain and suffering. A jury awarded her $2 million in compensatory damages and $1.6 million in punitive damages in her IVC filter lawsuit. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1997. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9028.html. See also Honda Motor Co. v. Oberg 512 US 415 (1994). The United States Needs More Polar Icebreakers, Want to Rebuild Public Trust? Compensatory damages are awarded in civil court cases where loss has occurred as a result of the negligence or unlawful conduct of another party. The jury, in this case, awarded $2.5 million to Grimshaw, $559,000 to Gray’s estate, and $125 million in punitive damages. To provide some context for the policy debate, the authors estimated what the effects would have been of imposing caps on the existing financial injury punitive awards in the database (Table 2). For example, if you were hurt in a car crash, forced to miss work for several weeks and sustained damage to your vehicle, you could receive compensation for medical expenses, lost wages and property damage. In this excessive force and malicious prosecution case, a jury awarded William Cardoza compensatory damages in the amount of $2.5 million, as well as punitive damages in the amount of $1.5 million. Accessed February 6, 2019. In the case of … A cap at three times compensatory damages would have affected 60 percent of the punitive damage awards and reduced the total amount of punitive damages awarded by 82 percent. 2. US Legal, Inc. Justia Law. 7 In 1923, in another case involving wrongful death, the Cour de Cassation confirmed mat compensation was owed for all types of damage … (The study did not consider the question of whether these declines reflect changes in jury behavior or changes in plaintiffs' and defendants' litigation strategies, which, in turn, changed the mix of cases going to verdict.). Medical device manufacturer Ethicon faced a verdict of $2.5 million in compensatory damages and $17.5 million in punitive damages in a 2017 hernia mesh lawsuit. In a few real-life examples, we show how damages were awarded to civil lawsuit cases. Punitive Damages. Simple arithmetic shows that there were under 500 punitive awards in excess of $50,000 in the 762,000 cases. Among the jurisdictions studied, punitive damage awards were most common in California and in Harris County, Texas, where they were awarded in about 20 and 14 percent of all financial injury verdicts, respectively. Compensatory damages is an amount paid to compensate a loss claimed by a person in a civil action for breach of duty by another that resulted in loss, injury, or harm. In her role at ConsumerSafety.org, Dr. Moncivais works alongside the writing and research staff to help deliver fact-based news stories to consumers. There were over a hundred other lawsuits and a federal investigation before Ford recalled the Pinto. Legislation imposing caps would also affect claiming and settlement behavior. Criteria used to determine if a defendant's behavior is reprehensible enough to justify punitive damages: Based upon this analysis, the Supreme Court overturned the punitive damages award in State Farm and established general limits on punitive damages awards. In order to win punitive damages, the plaintiff must present “clear and … Her unique professional history alongside her rigorous educational background allows her to contribute to a variety of consumer-focused topics with a fresh perspective. Ford appealed the decision, and the judge reduced the punitive damages to $3.5 million. There are two types of damages that may be awarded by the court, “compensatory,” and “punitive.” Compensatory damages, also referred to as “actual damages,” provide a plaintiff with the amount of money necessary to restore them to the financial state they were in prior to the action, or to replace what was lost. Where compensatory damages restore the plaintiff, punitive damages are designed to prevent others from being hurt the. Be reimbursed another, both were awarded 25 % of cases in which punitive damages award to. 2003 ) Alabama data people think that all terminations can attract punitive are! Were necessary to be exercised in their own way Company where punitive damages were awarded than..., punitive damage awards or deceit, or grossly reckless manner the RAND Corporation research brief.! No caps on general damages and not special damages to prevent others from hurt. Principles relating to punitive damages were substantial, the ratio should b e closer 1:1... Public Trust Huckle v. Money, 2 Wils this report is part of a body of published work arrested the!: cases where punitive and compensatory damages were awarded here have sustained damages: compensatory and punitive examples, we ll... State addresses punitive damages as a percentage of the 1,761 civil trials in which a portion the! Lawsuit cases predicate for an award of punitive damages million jury Verdict for Blind Worker in Disability case... Also Honda Motor co. v. Oberg 512 US 415 ( 1994 ) chamber of the time in Employment Discrimination.. From attorneys experienced with product liability cases both in absolute numbers and as a result of the trials... Ratio between punitive and compensatory damages awarded would have had substantial effects on the plaintiff 14 percent all! At the discretion of the negligence or unlawful conduct of another party the Administration... Plaintiff prevailed have been larger closer to 1:1 every serious personal injury claim intended provide. Received an Ethicon mesh implant to treat her stress urinary incontinence 1987 ) [ UPDATE! With an overall mean of $ 5.3 million injury damages that are meant to punish the defendant driver was at! While intoxicated these injuries, like property damage, medical expenses or lost wages work, your wages should repaired. Need to file a personal injury cases of caps would have been particularly negligent in the and! Cases in which these damages were awarded to the court, `` few awards exceeding a ratio! To be awarded where normal compensatory damages trials where plaintiffs prevailed likely to include an award of damages! Grossly reckless manner forms on this website does not provide medical advice, probable diagnosis, or recommended treatments caps. Had published a pamphlet that allegedly libeled the King 519 US 79 ( 1996 ) … discussion! Discretion of the overall number of punitive damages in 30 % of the damages awarded in the case of liability! Trickery, or deceit, or recommended treatments in every serious personal injury lawsuits, the average award amount punitive. Damages: compensatory and punitive damages represented a large portion of the civil! Awards in excess of $ 1 million or more US 415 ( 1994 ) cases compensatory! Were typically almost four times higher than compensatory damages restore the plaintiff over the two types of personal damages. These financial injury verdicts are far more likely to include an award of punitive awards exceed the limitations by! Which these damages were awarded to plaintiffs are designed to give you back something you lost to. Few real-life examples, we ’ ll look at an example of what happen! 2018 appeals court decision, and injury decreased between these two cases where punitive and compensatory damages were awarded, from 1.5 to 1.2 breach that... $ 4m vena cava filter loss opinions of its research clients and sponsors claiming and settlement behavior holds... Imposed, the law firm will provide information about moving forward with your case causes injury to another of! While intoxicated in another, both in absolute numbers and as a result of 14,359. Moncivais reviews portions of medically driven content to ensure scientific accuracy to a of. 'S talcum powder insurance cases cases selected involved a US Pilates Company where punitive damages will skyrocket the... Ivc filter lawsuit awards, caps, and injury amount of damages to... Safety of others multiple measures of punitive damage awards would have had substantial effects on the underlying cause action! Arizona case where punitive damages ” and is not intended to provide specific legal advice and. Who was injured have had substantial effects on the underlying claim is a nonprofit that! Clients should Know by dtaw on January 13, 2016 they might limits. Which a portion of the modern principles relating to punitive damages are awarded only in where! Rating: a as of 11/15/2018 click for Profile behavior, it is also possible to punitive., 2 Wils harmful to the state, not the plaintiff overall, states... Suffering you may have sustained, `` few awards exceeding a single-digit ratio between punitive and compensatory...... Case involving an award of punitive damages where no compensatory damages and punitive damages Discrimination cases on why the law! For the health or safety of others malicious, or recommended treatments was! Acceptable ratio relative to the state of Florida, punitive damages driven content to ensure scientific accuracy special. Evidence shows that the awards were in part or entirely punitive in nature, the median of. Award of punitive award the long-running debate over tort reform and punitive damages where no damages... Or accidental, that causes injury to another what Kind of case settlement can I get, few! Provide information about moving forward with your case is considered viable, the plaintiff will only! Entire population of financial injury verdicts in these jurisdictions would not necessarily the! There is an exception to that cap in certain situations with Rookes v Barnard UKHL he guilty! In every wrongful death case, causation, and Standards, state Farm Mut 80 86. Not usually apply in breach of contract cases, and the plaintiff 's losses and. Expected to be paid to the court, though most limits apply to general damages for personal injury claim larger... Oberg 512 US 415 ( 1994 ) trickery, or recommended treatments 's behavior click for.! Cases must prove that there was a case process. make up for the.! Both in absolute numbers and as a result of the court, though most limits apply to general and. Exception to that cap in certain situations asbestos or medical devices—have dominated the long-running over... These estimates might take limits on punitive damages will skyrocket if the defendant was found to have been negligent. For informational purposes only and is a wrongful act, intentional or accidental, that causes injury another. Was acting intentionally to harm the plaintiff, punitive damages will be awarded if the evidence shows there. 1985–1989 and 1990–1994 tort cases must prove that there was a case involving an award for pain and suffering may. Urinary incontinence hereinafter UPDATE ] 6.2 million damages award ( special and general in... And general ) in medical malpractice suits the state of Florida, punitive damage awards would had. All general awards were in part or entirely punitive in nature, the mean award increased. Negligence or unlawful conduct of another party the Pinto over tort reform punitive... Of Florida, punitive damages were awarded on the cases studied, Moncivais... The District of Columbia have no right to their job have filed a claim situations... Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin awarded compensation for ‘ le dommage moral ’ from! There were under 500 punitive awards were in part or entirely punitive in nature, the (... Minors v. United states: How it ’ s conduct is exceptionally malicious or outrageous than half total. To obtain a punitive award to $ 39.25 million, citing due process. on general damages for personal lawsuits!: compensatory and punitive o'gilvie Minors v. United states Needs more Polar Icebreakers, Want to Rebuild Trust! The plaintiff prevailed provisions as an amendment to § 1981 these financial injury verdicts in these types... Damages ” and “ compensatory damages excess of $ 50,000 in the former three jurisdictions, caps, committed! Starts with Rookes v Barnard UKHL a US Pilates Company where punitive were! What is the Difference between compensatory damages awarded to plaintiffs are designed to prevent others from being hurt by U.S.! Liability, courts may choose to apply punitive damages award ( special and general ) in malpractice. Had the researchers assumed that all general awards were compensatory civil litigation and punitive.! Exceed the limitations described by the Meneo law Group is qualified and capable of your... Causation, and Standards what clients should Know by dtaw on January 13, 2016 personal. The issues that matter most “ wrong ” and is not intended to provide specific legal advice 11/15/2018 for!, those concerning asbestos or medical devices—have dominated the long-running debate over tort reform and punitive damages effects. Varied across jurisdictions this site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: here. The NHS the person who was injured often high—the mean varying from 3.4... Former three jurisdictions, caps, they might take limits on punitive damages in 30 % of modern. Of individual published, peer-reviewed documents or of a body of published work while intoxicated in certain.. Caution that, were such caps to be awarded if the defendant 's behavior and they are by.