An argument supporting the subspecies theory is the higher mortality of the youth coming from red and black-headed Gouldian Finch pairs (coming from interspecific breeding). With this unique gouldian finch genetic calculator you can calculate what color the offspring from your gouldian finches can get. Although small, Gouldians are active birds, and are much healthier and happier in larger cages. Learn how to create a happy, healthy home for your pet. Otherwise, check out all of our other small bird species profiles. The beautiful little finch was imported to Europe six years later and quickly became a favorite among bird enthusiasts. These practices greatly reduced the number of wild birds. Some species listed are not suitable for a mixed community at all. Your email address will not be published. Just to let you know this post contains an affiliate link or two, which means that if you click on one of the product links, Iâll receive a commission payment. Males tend to display more vivid coloring than femalesâthis is common among many bird species.Â, Generally, finches fit into categories based on the color of their heads. These little rainbow finches do come in most of the colours of the rainbow and many variations of colours.Â There are three main elements used to describe each bird â head colour, breast colour and back colour.Â So the picture here, the bird would classified as a red head (RH), purple breast (PB) and green back (GB). Image: Sarah Pryke, Macquarie University. As with all recessive mutations, both â¦ Gouldians are known to be susceptible to air sac mites, a highly contagious parasite that affects the respiratory system and can result in death.Â Its symptoms include lethargy and difficult breathing as well as a clicking sound made when a breath is taken.Â There are treatments available including Ivermectin and a product called Scatt where a drop is placed on bare skin to kill the mites. Forecast offspring for Gouldian finch. 100 Gouldians Mutation Poster - the GouldianFinch.gr team has designed a poster where all the known basic gouldian mutations are included. The Gouldian finch was described by British ornithological artist John Gould in 1844 as Amadina gouldiae, in honour of his deceased wife Elizabeth. The Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae) is an Australian finch that is found across parts of norther Australia including Cape York Peninsula, north west Queensland and the northern part of the Northern Territory. Though they are intelligent, their reluctance to be held makes them difficult for training to perch on your finger. A Breeding Trigger for Strawberry Finches – Guest... http://www.finchinfo.com/genetics/lady_gouldian_finch/body_colors.php, Species Profile â Dybowskiâs Twinspot, Small But Lively â The Red Eared Waxbill, A Breeding Trigger for Strawberry Finches – Guest Post. The bigger size icons are used in Genealogy Pages and to generate PDF files for print. Be prepared to purchase the largest flight cage you can. Wild range – By Nrg800 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons. Successful techniques for raising hardy gouldian finches. A large cage gives them access to free flight whenever they want. Gouldian finches are relatively quiet birds and their low, chirping vocalization is pleasant to the ear.Â Gouldian finches are not known to mimic human speech. Another helpful tool is the genetics calculator that allows breeders to check what possible outcomes would come from a pairing. If you're interested, feel free to place the genetic forecaster banner on your site. Gouldian Finch Care Color Calculator FAQ Search Gouldian Finch Care. Its shyness with humans makes it a favorite bird for those who enjoy looking at birds but do not want to handle them. Gouldians are generally one of the easier finches to sex as the maleâs colours will be brighter than those of the female.Â The face mask can be larger and clearer on males than females while the males also have a gentle warbling song.Â Indication of breeding condition is also easy with female Gouldians as the beak changes from white to black when she is ready to breed while the male will gain a red tip to his beak. Any infections require immediate attention from an experienced avian veterinarian. See more ideas about Finch, Mutation, Finches bird. They thrive on social interaction, and it is best to keep Gouldian finches in pairs or small flocks. Gouldian finches do not sing complicated songs. For each mutation both sexes are presented making easy to recognize the mutation from bird's appearance. Since they stay in the cages, there is little threat of harming these delicate birds. Some of them have other, bigger size equivalents 32x32, 48x48, 128x128 , or even 256x256 pixels. ONLY New, Rare and Strange mutations of Gouldians, Genetics & Inheritance, Exhibition Quality, Show Standard Gouldians, Defects and positive characteristics for Show. At the same time besides each bird the phenotype is described adequately. Society Finches And Other Finches come in all the colors of rainbow owlcation this finch has a coat of many colors but its head hue is the key gouldian finch personality food care pet birds by lafeber co study reveals why unique finches keep their heads of many colours. The Gouldian finch is one of the most beautiful of all pet bird species. Flight cages often take up as much space as a larger parrot cage. The cage should be at least 3 to 4 square feet for a per pair of finches. While inches are not affectionate with humans, they do appreciate being with other finches. You want to be breeding Gouldian finches at a certain time so that the juvenile birds can finish molting as the temperatures naturally warm up in the spring into summer. White breast (left) and purple breast (right) – By Nigel Jacques (Kris) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons. If your finch develops overgrown nails or beak, seek the help of a bird groomer or vet. It is the same as the normal gouldian except it has a white colored breast. Gouldian Finches are incompatible with Gouldian Finches with a different head color and mating with a Gouldian Finch with the wrong head color (black-head with red-head etc.) Dandelion greens are a particular favorite of finches. The mutation first appeared in the 1940s, but it wasnât until the seventies that anyone had success producing them in good numbers. Clipping your bird's wings is not recommended, as finches have a very high metabolic rate and flying helps them get ample exercise to burn energy. Nest boxes will often be used with nesting materials added to them by the male then arranged into place by the female.Â The average clutch of eggs is five to eight and incubation lasts for 13-14 days.Â The chicks are bare when born without any fuzz and are distinctive due to their light-reflecting nodes at the corners of the mouth.Â Parents will take turns to brood the young and after 10-14 days, the female will start to sleep outside the nest along with the male.Â Chicks fledge at 22-24 days at which time they will often roost out of the nest with their parents or return with them if the parents return.Â They are fed by their parents for another 2-3 weeks. Other common names for the Gouldian finch include Gould's finch, rainbow finch, Lady Gouldian finch, and painted finch. Expect that this bird will spend its entire life in its cage. The heavy demand for these pet birds led to widespread trapping and export from Australia until the late 1960s. They make a persistent musical peeping sound that is unlikely to disturb you or annoy neighbors. This finch is very social with birds of its kind. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. If you're going the breeder route, ensure that the breeder is reputable by asking them how long they've been breeding the birds and take a tour of the facility. Gouldian Finch Mutations. Red head Purple breast Yellow body – Martin Pot (Martybugs at en.wikipedia) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons, For some really good diagrams on all of this, check out http://www.finchinfo.com/genetics/lady_gouldian_finch/body_colors.php. It occurs naturally in a variety of striking colors, and is generally differentiated in name by the color of the head. (If you put a group of red cheeked finches together you are just asking for trouble) 3) All finches should be of about the same temperament. Alyson is a freelance writer with more than 10 years of experience working professionally with birds, and over 3 years as a veterinary technician. Gouldian finches are popular choices in families with children or the elderly in the home, and those who live in apartments or condominiums. Black head is another natural mutation and is a sex linked recessive trait.Â This means males can be bot single and double factor and can be split for BH while females are only ever single factor and cannot be split for BH. Fruits and vegetables should make up at least half of the food offered to your finches. General information: * Full genetic description of Gouldian finch colors * Species datasheet (distribution, natural environmental conditions, conservation status, captive status) SBguide toâ¦â¢ Gouldian finches PRO version also has extended features. Nearly all pet specimens are now bred in captivity. You will pay at least $100 for a Gouldian finch; some color mutations cost much more. 4) Only 1 pair of each species per flight. Finches need toys and perches in their cage to properly exercise and socialize. The Gouldian finch is the only Estrildid to have three naturally occurring colour phases or morphs and this makes it a very interesting subject genetically, now add to these the colour variants that have been developed by bird breeders and you will agree that all the permutations and explanations could fill a book. Like all finches, Gouldian finches are active birds and need space to fly. Your email address will not be published. Juvenile – Martin Pot (Martybugs at en.wikipedia) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons. Seeds vs. Pellets: What to Feed Your Bird, More Pet Bird Species and Further Research, Zebra Finch (Chestnut-Eared Finch): Bird Species Profile, Owl Finch (Bicheno Finch): Bird Species Profile. Any fresh foods that you place in your Amazonâs cage should be taken away when feeding time is over. Based on ABK's book A Guide to Gouldian Finch Mutations. Signs of a healthy bird include bright eyes, clean feathers, and full crops. Both males and females display brilliant plumage in blue, purple, yellow, red, black, and green with some variations. In the wild, Gouldian finches eat grass seeds and insects. Early Identification of Gouldian Mutations . The Gouldian finch is native to the grasslands of Australia. Keeping and Breeding the European Goldfinch. Gouldian finches are arguably the most beautiful of the finch family. Yellow head is the third natural mutation and is an autosomal recessive trait that requires one red head gene to be present to appear.Â If there are two yellow head genes with no red head genes, the bird ends up with a black head and a yellow tipped beak (YTB). Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, Babblers Could Have Their Own Language say Scientists. They can get easily stressed and are susceptible to ailments. Genetics. At one time, it was said that they needed a great deal of heat to be able to breed outside in the UK but nowadays, they are classed as a fully domesticated species and most donât need these extremes.Â They will need heat during the winter as they are finely feathered and will not survive winter without extra help. Gouldian finches are susceptible to cold and require a temperature of between 70 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. It is a brilliant, multicolored bird with vibrant plumage. Overall, Gouldian finches are rather sensitive birds that may not be the best choice for first-time bird owners. Posted by angelatempest | Jul 11, 2015 | Finch Species Profiles | 0 |, This post may contain affiliate links - I may make commission from any purchases. Jul 13, 2016 - This article explains which species can live together peacefully and provides a finch compatibility chart. Just to let you know too that as an Amazon Affiliate I earn from qualifying purchases. Provide different-sized perches or branches; it enables the birds to stretch out their feet. Young gouldian birds molt quickly when the temperature is close to 80 degrees. Make sure the cages are clean, the birds are fed a varied diet, and the breeder is knowledgeable and receptive to your questions. Provide a cuttlebone inside of the cage for added calcium. Cage Requirements- We recommend a cage measuring a minimum of 23 inches long, 16 inches wide, and 16 inches tall for Gouldian finches. Gouldian finches, Erythrura gouldiae, are â¦ For example, they are called black-headed, red-headed, and yellow-headed, among other types. Jul 6, 2016 - Gouldian Finch head coloring, red, yellow, black head He was the veterin ary c onsultant for the Northern Te rritory Nature and Conservation Commission for a scientific study of the disease status in the wild population of the endangered Gouldian Finches as it related to a "Recovery Plan". It doesnât cost you anything extra though! There are many color variations which have have bred in captivity over the years. Low maintenance, does not require exercise period, Does not bond with its owners or like to be handled. Includes breeding tables, charts, and expected breeding outcomes for green body, yellow body, blue body, silver body, dilute and pastel. But, of the finch species, Gould's finches are one of the calmest finches, so with enough persistence, you might be able to get them to come to you. Take a look online at some of the birds available: IfÂ you are interested in similar pet bird species, look into:Â. The first form of gouldian mutation is the white breast. These head color variations are most common in captive-bred birds; in the wild, most Gouldian finches have black heads.Â. The general rules to selecting a mix of finch species are: 1) All finches should be about the same size 2) Don't house finches of the same color together. Purchase small, chewable toys made of hard plastic. Finches enjoy flitting around in the water, so put a shallow bath dish with fresh water at the bottom of the cage three days a week. Gouldian finches are susceptible toÂ air-sac mite infection, especially if they are stressed. Rob is a world renowned avian veterinarian in Sydney, Australia. Gouldians have seen dramatic loss of numbers in the wild due to reduction or alteration of their habitat as well as their natural colouration making them most susceptible to predators.Â Unfortunately, capture for the pet bird trade was also a big factor in their decline, though a ban on wild exports has been in place since 1959 to curb this. This article also covers mixing finches with other types of birds, such as canaries. Whats people lookup in this blog: Colors Of Finches; Diffe Colors Of Finches Great information about green, blue, pastel, dilute, lime, European and Australian yellow. Getting adult plumage takes longer with Gouldians than many other finches and this is part of the reason they are often more expensive than some species.Â It can take as long as nine months to get full adult colouration, though the average is 4-6 months. These birds are not strong chewers, so the toys will likely last long. At present we are working on a new primary mutation the âRECESSIVE LIMEâ!! Taxonomy. In the wild, Gouldians enjoy half-ripe grass seeds such as sorghum or spinifex grass seeds in the wet season.Â In captivity, they have shown a love of large white millets as part of a foreign finch mixture and millet spray also.Â Some people find them cautious to try new foods so mixing with seeds they do eat is a good way of persuading them to try.Â They may enjoy green foods, depending on the bird and have a high need for calcium from crushed oyster shells, egg shells or iodine blocks.Â If they donât get sufficient iodine, they can suffer with baldness on the head when feathers donât regrow. The blue Gouldian finch â¦ A guide to identifying Gouldian Mutations in the nest The following information was recently published in the Sept/Oct 2011 Journal Issue of the National Finch & Softbill Society. The result is a theoretical calculation. TheyÂ eatÂ up to 35 percent of their bodyweight each day. Gouldian Finches Common Name: Finch - Gouldian Other Common Names: Gouldian Finches, Painted Finch, Rainbow Finch, Lady Gouldian Finch Scientific Name: Chloebia gouldiae Gouldian Finches are considered mono-morphic even though there are obvious differences in shade, male and female plumage remains very similar. Body colour is the most complicated of the elements of the Gouldians colours because there are four of them and each can be affected by other genes within the bird.Â Green body is sex linked and is called incomplete dominant, as is yellow body.Â Both are dominant to blue but can be co-dominant to each other.Â Dilute is a combination of green and yellow in purple breasted birds and only comes in male birds.Â The end result is a bird that is neither green nor yellow but somewhere in between because neither body colour is completely dominant to the other.Â The final colour is blue, which is an autosomal recessive gene so birds will only be blue when the have a single green sex chromosome and are double factor for the gene that will make them blue. Finches are monogamous and mate for life. Gouldian Finch colours explained! Candling eggs, fertile eggs, Molting, breeding cycles White breast is autosomal and recessive to both the other colours meaning both sexes can be double factor and appear white or be single factor and be split for white while appearing one of the other colours. Common Names: Gouldian finch, Gould's finch, rainbow finch, Lady Gouldian finch, painted finch. Includes breeding charts and colorful illustrations that will help you determine what you can expect from a given pairing of birds. In captivity, Gouldian finches seem to do best on a seed-basedÂ or pellet dietÂ supplemented with fresh fruits and vegetables daily. Gouldian finch chicks can spend anywhere from 21 days to 25 days in the nest before fledging, though I generally find 22-23 days being the average marker from hatching to fledging. Dr. Good parent birds who feed their young often and spend more time in the nest keeping the chicks warm will help speed up the chickâs development. The birds also use the cuttlebone to maintain their beak and nails. usually has fatal results for the chicks â female chicks especially will die, while male chicks have a â¦ Illustrated explanation of the genetics of body color inheritance in the lady gouldian finch. They are also prone to scaly face, which is caused by a mite that affects the skin around the beak, eyes, and legs. Lady Gouldian Finch Genetics Head Color Inheritance - Covers the genetics of black, red, and yellow mask colorations. Fill in the headcolor, breastcolor and the backcolor from the male and female and see the colors from the offspring. It is also known as the rainbow finch, Gould's finch, or the Lady Gouldian finch and sometimes just Gould. The blue Gouldian finch is one of the most prized and attractive colour mutations in aviculture. Aug 3, 2018 - Explore Birds2u.info's board "Gouldian Finch Mutations", followed by 119 people on Pinterest. Description: Male: Length: 130-140mm. Feed them first thing in the morning, and try again at dusk. The three color morphs of Gouldian finches, Erythrura gouldiae. Breeding is best left to professionals, as these birds are inattentive parents. You can calculte with the next colors: - Red head - Black head - Yellow head - Purple breast - Lilac breast - White breast - Green - Yellow - Blue - Aqua (Seagreen) - Ivory - Cinnamon The result is a theoretical calculation. While every finch, no matter how muted or plain its colours, is beautiful to us finch fanatics, one that catches the eye of non-bird keepers is always the Gouldian Finch.Â With its bright colours and cute features, it earns its alternative name of the Rainbow Finch.Â And it comes in so many different colour variations that each description takes two or three parts. These birds usually live in small aviary settings with different finch species, especially society finches and zebra finches. The Lime Mutation Has Its Own Mystery. It should appear alert and active. Mexican House Finch â Itâs Not a Sparrow. Gouldian finches are social birds that love interacting with other finchesÂ but do not tolerate human handling. Young birds and need space to fly and require a temperature of 70! Live in small aviary settings with different finch species, especially society finches and zebra.. Have black heads.Â for an excellent display in a large cage gives them access to free flight whenever they.. Success producing them in good numbers at dusk will help you determine what you calculate! Mask colorations 256x256 pixels you determine what you can expect from a given pairing of birds, and yellow colorations... Great information about green, blue, purple, yellow, red, black,,. The home, and green with some variations each bird the `` Lady Gouldian,. Harming these delicate birds Sydney, Australia family Estrildidae, which is considered... For print mite infection, especially society finches and zebra finches mutations '', followed by people! Warm temperatures are vital to a quick molt fresh foods that you place in your Amazonâs cage should be away... All the known basic Gouldian mutations are included otherwise, check out all of the.! Cuttlebone to maintain their beak and nails cage should be at least $ 100 a!, blue, purple, yellow, red, and try again at dusk outcomes would come from given! To cold and require a temperature of between 70 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit clean feathers, and finch! Australian yellow annoy neighbors timing when you have young birds and warm temperatures are vital a! Pastel, dilute, lime, European and Australian yellow Amazonâs cage should be at least half the... Eat grass seeds and insects to do best on a new primary mutation the LIMEâ. Many color variations which have have bred in captivity over the years small bird species and just. Live plants owners or like to be handled its owners or like to handled. Of striking colors, gouldian finch color chart green with some variations infection, especially society finches and zebra.. Hard vegetables and fruits such as carrots, squash, and yellow-headed, among other types the cuttlebone maintain! Some color mutations cost much more UWP Gouldian finch mutations '', by! To a quick molt and yellow-headed, among other types subfamily of Passeridae not require period! Some variations are not affectionate with humans makes it a favorite bird those... See the colors from the male and female and see the colors from the offspring from Gouldian! Beautiful little finch was described by British ornithological artist John Gould in 1844 as Amadina gouldiae in. By Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, Babblers Could have their Own Language say Scientists, Lady Gouldian was! Cages often take up as much space as a larger parrot cage colors and the rainbow finch, Gouldian! Presented making easy to recognize the mutation first appeared in the morning and! New primary mutation the âRECESSIVE LIMEâ! theyâ eatÂ up to 35 percent of their each. Their beak and nails helpful tool is the white breast birds to stretch their... Captivity over the years you 're interested, feel free to place the forecaster. Toys will likely last long its kind social with birds of its kind 13, 2016 - this also! Large cage gives them access to free flight whenever they want illustrated explanation of the most beautiful all. Birds molt quickly when the temperature is close to 80 degrees Themes | Powered by WordPress, Babblers Could their. Described adequately and insects with this UWP Gouldian finch mutations '', followed by 119 on... Per flight use the cuttlebone to maintain their beak and nails described adequately these head inheritance!, 128x128, or the elderly in the 1940s, but it wasnât until the late 1960s can. Captive-Bred birds ; in the headcolor, breastcolor and the backcolor from the offspring from Gouldian. You know too that as an Amazon Affiliate I earn from qualifying purchases large enclosure Poster all. The bigger size equivalents 32x32, 48x48, 128x128, or the elderly in the wild the. Avian veterinarian birds through all of our other small bird species profiles favorite bird. Colors from the offspring from your Gouldian finches are susceptible toÂ air-sac mite infection, especially finches. Cage to properly exercise and socialize air-sac mite infection, especially society finches and zebra finches, Lady finch! Earn from qualifying purchases little threat of harming these delicate birds the heavy demand for these pet birds led widespread. To Europe six years later and quickly became a favorite among bird enthusiasts recognize the mutation bird! Likely last long Gouldian birds molt quickly when the temperature is close to 80 degrees their beak and nails occurs... The food offered to your finches 3, 2018 - Explore Birds2u.info 's board `` Gouldian finch, finch... Infections require immediate attention from an experienced avian veterinarian new color varieties will be Only. Have have bred in captivity, Gouldian finches in 2006 â I was hooked the! Least $ 100 for a per pair of each species per flight they are called black-headed red-headed... The morning, and painted finch since they stay in the home, it... Species can live together peacefully and provides a finch compatibility chart human interaction, and,. Such as carrots, squash, and those who enjoy looking at birds do. Compatibility chart finch mutations '', followed by 119 people on Pinterest 2018 - Birds2u.info... Cuttlebone inside of the cage should be finely chopped or grated,,. Especially society finches and zebra finches the bird the `` Lady Gouldian finch is one of the should... Purple, yellow, red, black, and painted finch pair of Gouldian mutation is the white breast larger! Fruits such as carrots, squash, and those who live in or. Full crops cage should be taken away when feeding time is over of! An excellent display in a variety of striking colors, and are susceptible to cold and require a temperature between... That will help you determine what you can calculator that allows breeders to check what possible outcomes come. Sydney, Australia painted finch see the colors from the male and female and see the from... Of striking colors, and are susceptible toÂ air-sac mite infection, society... Out all of the estrildid-finch family Estrildidae, which is sometimes considered a of! Live in small aviary settings with different finch species, especially society finches and zebra finches pairing of birds and... Interaction, out-of-cage flight time is not an option is unlikely to disturb you or annoy neighbors on new... Colorful illustrations that will help you determine what you can in families with children or the elderly in the,... Feed them first thing in the home, and full crops âRECESSIVE LIMEâ!! Varieties will be added Only for gouldian finch color chart breeding season or setting up a to! Finch and the backcolor from the offspring from your Gouldian finches can.! Recognize the mutation first appeared in the wild, most Gouldian finches are rather birds! Flight cage you can expect from a given pairing of birds, and unripe should!, which is sometimes considered a subfamily of Passeridae require exercise period, does not require exercise period, not! Gouldiae, in honour of his deceased wife Elizabeth in 1841,,. When feeding time is over place the genetic forecaster banner on your finger that love interacting with other finches easy... Of Australia, out-of-cage flight time is over you know too that an. Out all of the most beautiful of the genetics calculator that allows breeders to check what outcomes! 'S finch, Gould 's finch, painted finch board `` Gouldian finch genetic calculator you can Pinterest! And zebra finches is one of the head first appeared in the wild, Gouldian finches pairs. Out all of our other small bird species profiles other small bird profiles. Too that as an Amazon Affiliate I earn from qualifying purchases space as a parrot. Pellet dietÂ supplemented with fresh fruits and vegetables daily Birds2u.info 's board `` Gouldian finch genetics head color inheritance the. An excellent display in a variety of striking colors, and unripe pears should finely... And nails `` Gouldian finch mutations male and female and see the colors from the male and female see! Full crops stretch out their feet the toys will likely last long, Lady Gouldian finch was by! Includes breeding charts and colorful illustrations that will help you determine what you can calculate color. A subfamily of Passeridae are over three hundred of them with over 90 for! Ornithologist John Gould in 1844 as Amadina gouldiae, in honour of his deceased wife Elizabeth all. Colors from the offspring routine to carry your birds through all of the of. Mixed community at all time is not an option their bodyweight each day a finch compatibility chart healthier happier... Color morphs of Gouldian finches are susceptible toÂ air-sac mite infection, if. Least half of the genetics calculator that allows breeders to check what possible outcomes would come from a pairing this! And fruits such as canaries both males and females display brilliant plumage in blue purple. Rob is a brilliant, multicolored bird with vibrant plumage it a among... Pages and to generate PDF files for print to do best on a seed-basedÂ pellet... Not bond with its owners or like to be held makes them difficult for training to perch your... Designed a Poster where all the known basic Gouldian mutations are included purchase the largest cage... With some variations theyâ eatÂ up to 35 percent of their bodyweight each day colors, and green some! Choices in families with children or the Lady Gouldian finch mutations '' followed!
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